|Global signposts to local treasures|
|Monday, 05 March 2007 01:47|
Conference: International Education, A Matter of Heart
February 14-16, 2006. Sunway Lagoon Resort Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Global signposts to local treasures. The case of the KwaZulu-Natal Literary Map on the Web
Graham Douglas James Stewart
The result of an ongoing collaborative project, the KwaZulu-Natal Literary Map on the Web (hereafter, the “KZN Map” or the “Map”) is an online literary companion to the work of writers - past and present - in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Known users of the “Map” already included tourists and students studying South African literature courses both locally and abroad. But website usage data, accumulated during the first thirteen months since its publication on the Internet, provided additional information on the origin of website hits and the relative popularity of different writers. Usage patterns and indications of local and international interest in KZN writers that emerged from the data have contributed to shaping the future development of the project.
By studying web usage statistics, the research team were able to test assumptions about which KZN writers attracted most interest, and use the findings as indicators for tailoring the content of the site. These indicators have been integrated into the quality management criteria in the research team’s collaborative online writing space (“The Workbench”). Additionally, patterns of interest were used to pinpoint likely areas for the development of literary tours. A key aim of the KZN Literary Map project is to develop an online archive of KZN writers while building and sustaining the resource through the judicious exploitation of their literary tourism potential.
A critical assumption of the KZN Literary Map project is that authentic literary experiences can be inspired by a visitor’s actual and/or imaginative interaction with a place or space associated with a specific literary work. By using income generated by tourism to sustain conservation, and by pursuing the project in a scholarly way, the deleterious effects of commercial tourism can be tempered. While examples of first-world countries that have harnessed the commercial possibilities of literary tourism abound, such endeavours are rare in developing countries, despite significant international interest in their literatures.
The paper sets out to locate the KwaZulu-Natal Literary Map (the “KZN Map” or the “Map”) project in its wider context through an account of its early development, and by relating it to the literature in heritage and literary tourism, online digital collections, and post-modern theory. Thereafter, some patterns evident in the website usage data are presented, together with an analysis of the data and discussion of the significance of the results for the future direction of our project.
The notion of cultural tourism is fraught with ironies and contradictions. While literary tourists generally seek authentic experiences, in the expectation that they will re-connect imaginatively with the fictional worlds of their favourite authors, the reconstruction of that “authenticity” is frequently the outcome of a sustained, conscious strategy by the tourist industry. Can authentic experiences be derived from fabricated realities? One solution for the researcher is to attempt to place the phenomenon of literary tourism into a coherent frame of reference, and here Frederic Jameson’s concept of “cognitive mapping” is particularly apt
“Cognitive mapping, [is] the invention of ways of using one object and one reality to get a mental grasp of something else which one cannot represent or imagine.”(Clark, 1996)
Arguing that the only way to achieve some distancing from dominant ideology is to subject it to critical scrutiny, Jameson offers a way of interrogating the authenticity of a literary tour. “For Jameson, cultural objects, and particularly films, are the sites of political possibility - the sites of potential cognitive maps” (Clark, 1996). By locating authors’ real and fictional spaces in the actual historicity of the present, the researcher can expose the ideologies stimulating tourists’ nostalgia for the site, and so both delight and challenge them at the same time. It may then be possible to aspire to a “genuine historicism” (Felluga, 2005), rather than settle for a sanitised or tawdry imitation.
The analytic approach necessary for cognitive mapping can legitimise the literary tourism enterprise, provided that it fully interrogates literary spaces as ideological signifiers, and confronts local social and economic issues. In South Africa, for instance, it is necessary to address the sustainability of a tour by inviting local community participation.
Central to post-modern criticism is the concept of “commodification” – the view that the commercialisation and packaging of cultural objects debases their real value (Hannabus, 1999:295).
There could hardly be a more brazen example of commodity reification than performing a form of quantitative market research on the relative popularity of KwaZulu-Natal authors. Reducing to tabular information the creative work of our best writers with their uniquely resonant insights into this remarkable piece of African landscape recalls T.S. Eliot:
“Where is the Life we have lost in living?
Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge?
Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?
The cycles of Heaven in twenty centuries
Brings us farther from God and nearer to the Dust.”
(Eliot, 1963: 161)
Yet the analysis of statistical information retrieved from web usage software is exactly the investigative thrust of this paper. How do we justify this apparently harmful, or at the very least, insensitive, activity? We feel that the project as a whole - as an act of cognitive mapping - redeems us from risking the trivialising of our literary greats. Furthermore, as Robinson and Andersen (2002: 14) put it: “Assertions that meaning is somehow ‘lost’ as the literary is packaged for tourists appear weak, and at times, irrelevant, given the openness of interpretation which creative writing invites.”
The result of an ongoing collaborative project (Stiebel, 2003), the KwaZulu-Natal Literary Map on the Web is an online literary companion to the work of writers - past and present - in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. At the same time, the Map provides an authoritative and evolving digital research archive of KZN writers and their works. Known users of the Map already include tourists and students studying South African literature courses both locally and abroad. But website usage data, accumulated during the first thirteen months since its publication on the Internet, has provided additional information on the origin of website hits and the relative popularity of different writers. Usage patterns and indications of local and international interest in KZN writers that emerged from the data have contributed to shaping the future development of the project.
By studying web usage statistics, the research team have been able to test assumptions about which KZN writers attracted most interest, and use the findings as indicators for tailoring the content of the site. These indicators have been integrated into the quality management criteria in the research team’s collaborative online writing space (“The Workbench”). Additionally, patterns of interest were used to pinpoint likely areas for the development of literary tours. A key aim of the KZN Literary Map project is to develop an online archive of KZN writers while building and sustaining the resource through the judicious exploitation of their literary tourism potential. Goulding (2000) reminds us that “It is a commonly held view in academic circles that popularising heritage involves sacrificing scholarly credibility by presenting only those images of history that have broad market appeal.”
A critical assumption of the KZN Literary Map project is that authentic literary experiences can be inspired by a visitor’s actual and/or imaginative interaction with a place or space associated with a specific literary work. By using income generated by tourism to sustain conservation and involve the community, and by pursuing the project in a scholarly way that eschews the nostalgia culture that Goulding alludes to, we hope to temper the deleterious effects of commercial tourism. While examples of first-world countries that have harnessed the commercial possibilities of literary tourism abound, such endeavours are rare in developing countries, despite significant international interest in their literatures.
Aims of the KZN Map project
The KwaZulu-Natal Literary Map on the Web falls under the umbrella of a wider-ranging Literary Tourism project, which examines the past and present written literature of KZN. The three research trajectories most closely associated with the Map itself are:
Author Entries – content creation
This research trajectory is associated with the theoretical underpinning of the project, as representative author selection is a key concern for the academic integrity of the enterprise, and for the future development of its participatory character. Outcomes are linked to biographical and bibliographic accuracy and currency, selection of appropriate extracts from authors’ work, image and multimedia content creation. Work on this aspect of the project has been reported elsewhere (Stiebel, 2003, Stewart, 2004).
The Workbench – collaborative writing space
The Virtual Workbench project is intended to create a virtual community of practice, giving Map project participants a private, shared web space to create author entries, add suitable extracts from their work, and upload images. Currently in its first cycle of implementation, the Workbench aims to facilitate online collaboration in which participants write their own entries, vet each other’s entries, and help build each entry by adding information, material or giving advice. Once everyone is satisfied with an entry, it is released for publication on the KZN Map site. Thus the collaborative writing space doubles as a quality assurance system, balancing input and evaluation in a professionally mediated environment. Intended outcomes include user-friendliness; buy-in by participants; evidence of value-added by online collaboration, and sustainability. The Workbench is intended to replace the previous somewhat haphazard process of swapping draft material, which proved to be cumbersome and often too slow to accommodate comprehensive peer review. At the end of its first annual cycle, the Workbench project is due for review and evaluation to decide on its suitability as the future content development tool for the Map.
KZN Literary Map website – development of the Map
The information design aspects of the research project include author/map integration, analysis of usage tracking statistics, the analysis of user feedback and the creation of dynamic home page content. From the home page, users may select any one of the authors from the drop-down list. Each author page includes a short biography, an extract from the writer’s work and a bibliography. Clickable maps in the Zulukingdom site can lead the user to the town or region associated with the author. An account of the design of the Map and the testing of its early prototypes has been discussed in an earlier paper (Stewart, 2004). The present paper explores the usage tracking aspect of this trajectory.
Analysis of web usage statistics – motivations and caveats
The present enquiry into Map user patterns is a component of the website development research trajectory described above. The intention of the paper was to gauge the extent to which an analysis of website usage statistics could help shape the development of the Map - an online “literary companion” as a tourist guide to local authors and their works. Amongst the usage patterns that may be explored from the available statistics are (a) the relative popularity of individual authors, (b) the total volume of individual page visits, and (c) audience composition and origin.
Our assumptions were (a) that widely known, established authors like Alan Paton or Rider Haggard would clearly attract more hits than lesser-known, emerging authors; (b) that we would find a fairly steep, growth trend over the first six months since the launch of the commercial version of the site, gradually flattening out; (c) that there would be sharp increases in usage tied to specific website updates and publicity for the site in other media (“webmaster interventions”); and (d) that educational domains (.ac and .edu) would predominate both local and international user profiles.
It was hoped that unusual or unanticipated patterns would also be explored, e.g. (a) a high interest in low-ranked authors, (b) sharp increases in web usage not linked to webmaster interventions, and (c) high interest international visitor statistics based on domain counting. A discussion of the web usage analysis is presented below.
Before we proceed to the discussion of our findings, however, a brief rationale for the use of statistical data, and their exploitation in the Map project is necessary. As has already been alluded to in the Introduction, creative artists are deeply suspicious of any attempt to exploit their work commercially. Marketing an art work can quickly move literally from the sublime to the ridiculous with over-promotion debasing and trivialising the work itself. This danger mirrors one of the continuing ironies of artistic endeavour - the tension between the author’s urge to reveal uncomfortable truths about ourselves and our societies, and a reliance on those same constituencies to earn their living. Researchers in the KZN Map project share the concerns articulated by Jameson and others (see above) that the commodification of artistic and creative works (in our case, poetry, drama and fiction, biography etc) can exert an insidious influence over artistic endeavours. Unlike the relatively laissez faire influence of a renaissance patron, contemporary capitalism tends to usurp the art, and absorb it into a general elitist and repressive establishment. How then, can we promote our local authors while rescuing them from the meretricious? Is it possible to provide enough guidance and information to make our “product” appealing, while ensuring that potential visitors are encouraged not simply to skim over a Disneyland surface image of our region and its people, but explore the literary works from a perspective of “genuine historicity” (Felluga, 2005). These concerns are recognised by researchers in the area of heritage tourism, where the late 20th century explosion in tourism has brought about a huge demand for heritage site visits -castles, nature, animal reserves, Robben Island (Shackley, 2001) and writers’ sites - those of Dickens, Shakespeare, Hemingway, for instance - while simultaneously posing challenges to conservationists. We want to delight and engage our literary tourists, yet we want them to see themselves and our own people in a clear and unblinkered light. Hannabus points to just such a visitor’s viewpoint in his attempt to articulate the experience of the post-modern tourist:
“The viewer is made aware of his/ her status as a viewer: the act of looking is self-aware, self-conscious. In many postmodern cultural experiences, we expect to deal with this ambivalence. We watch but knowingly.” (Hannabus, 1999: 296)
We want our local treasures to survive – both physically and spiritually – for ourselves and for future visitors. Given the growing expectation of travellers that tourist destinations should establish sustainable environments, promote conservation and sometimes even provide opportunities for participation in welfare and relief efforts, then literary tourism as a sometimes unsugared pill is not such a wild idea.
Literary tourism as a form of self-actualisation is mentioned by Hannabus, who draws attention a trend in tourism that “offer[s] opportunities to transform personal identity” (1999: 301). By offering the literary tourist the opportunity to participate and interact, the KZN Map project may be able to fulfil such an expectation and achieve the aim of providing an authentic literary tourism experience.
Other responses by the KZN Map research team to the issue of commodification include expanding the website contributor group, encouraging wider representation of new and emerging authors, collaborating with online educators in other countries to incorporate the Map as digital content in their South African literature resource materials, and contributing to the development of literary tours in KwaZulu-Natal itself. Do these initiatives neutralise the negative effects of commodification by altering the means of production of our literary product? Our research sets out to ascertain the extent to which we are able to temper market forces with authentic methods of participation and creation, and of inviting the literary tourist to join us in this enterprise.
Analysis of web usage statistics – methodology and discussion
Web usage statistics have a reputation for being inaccurate and misleading, and yet in spite of their shortcomings, they provide the only feasible method of identifying the composition of a website audience or user group (Riphagen and Kanfer, 1996). At the start of the KZN Map project in 2002, the initial question for the researchers was a simple one – is anyone visiting this site? Operating from a small server located in the office of one of the research team members, our first web usage measuring tool was a basic hit counter. Although rudimentary, the hit counter provided adequate assurance that the Map did indeed have an audience, and as time went by, reflected the impact that certain interventions – such as the publicising of the site in the Arts section of a local newspaper (Coan, 2003) – could exert on user numbers.
Once the KZN Map had been re-published on the Zulukindom.org.za portal in mid-2004, the project benefited from a more sophisticated web usage statistics instrument. Zulukingdom.org.za, as a commercial portal dedicated to the promotion of KZN tourism, has a strategic interest in tracking users. In fact, the university Map team’s collaboration with the KZN Tourist Authority was built on the latter’s expectation that the internationally-known authors featured in the Map would attract new users to other regional attractions highlighted in the Zulukingdom portal, through a type of halo effect.
Evidence of the “attraction” factor of some of the KZN authors can indeed now be seen by entering their names into popular search engines like Google. Searches for John Dube or Alan Paton will show the KZN Map ranked near the top of search results, thus boosting the likelihood of tangential browsing by users.
Web usage statistics presented us with a weekly report on the usage of the Map, including a count of all visits (“requests”) and the average number of requests per day, along with limited demographic data based on the tracking of the origin of requests (via their domain names). The individual page requests are by far the most useful to the research, as they provide valuable indicators of the relative popularity of author pages. These figures produce an instant snapshot of author popularity in the highly contested area of the literary “canon”. The constantly changing author hit parade is also a reminder of the potentially damaging effect of commodification. As discussed earlier, the uses to which we put our insights into the marketability of authors is crucial to preserving the integrity of the project.
The usage charts presented here are based on three of the sets of source data provide by the web statistics software (Turner, 2004). They relate to:
The patterns of data in the charts are to some extent self-explanatory, but each is followed by a brief commentary. Implications for the future development of the Map project are discussed under “Conclusions”.
The chart shows successful requests for pages at one-week intervals over the 13 months from July 2004 to August 2005. The more conservative “successful page requests” figure was selected rather than the much higher “total successful requests” because the latter tends to reflect only how many times the pages were viewed: “This is not the total number of people visiting, since each person probably looked at several pages.” (University of Virginia. 2005). Figures derived for the nine months prior to the Map’s move from the old university server to its new home at Zulukingdom.org.za showed a total of 854 “hits” over a nine month period. It can be seen from the above chart that even taking into account the conservative nature of the “page request” figure, the previous total had been exceeded three weeks after the move to the new server. The steep growth trend can be seen to have continued with the latest figures peaking at 3361 per week on 13 August 2005. Although over-analysing such data can be misleading, we are still able to draw some general conclusions from the patterns revealed by the usage figures. Firstly, the site has undoubtedly been successful in attracting users, and it is reasonable to deduce from the continuing rate of increase that a large proportion are new users, as opposed to a fixed number of very dedicated users who have increased the frequency of their visits.
Of greater interest to the research team since the publication of the prototype site in 2002 has been the effect on usage through interventions such as publicity in other media, additions to the author list and to the experimental multimedia files, etc. Stephen Coan’s article on the Map in a local newspaper in December 2003 can be associated with a steep rise in website hits immediately after the article was published, and possibly contributed to an increase in usage which was sustained over the following four months. The present author’s contribution to a conference in the United States in the last week of July 2004, in which the Map was discussed, may account for the noticeable increase in hits at that time. The increase in page requests relating to author Tom Sharpe in early 2005 is clearly related to the publication of his latest novel Wilt in Nowhere in the latter part of 2004.
Author Pages Requested
A pattern that was obvious from the first few “distinct pages” requests available for analysis after the re-publication of the Map on the Zulukingdom site in 2004, was the popularity of novelist Alan Paton. The 2005 chart shows a marked increase in this trend, and by August 2005 requests for this author were double the number registered for any of the next four most popular authors. However, this was not unexpected, as Paton’s work, and especially his novel Cry, the Beloved Country, (1948) would appear in most surveys of significant South African writing.
Each author entry page is assigned a unique file name when it is published (e.g. /lit/22.xml) and these file names may then be re-associated with author names to assemble a usage table to generate a bar chart like that in Figure 2 (above). Analysis of the relationship between distinct author requests and webmaster interventions revealed that there had been an increase in requests that coincided with a new Map Home Page announcement (the addition of multimedia files). The Home Page announcement had clearly sparked renewed interest in the author entries, and this finding has in turn led to a project decision to implement more frequent Home Page updates. The first of these was in June 2005, featuring information on the forthcoming local “Time of the Writer” festival and was followed more recently by the announcement of a writing competition, and the addition of new photographs.
Notwithstanding the warning sounded by Crane et al (2003) that “counting domain extensions is a notoriously problematic instrument for estimating audience composition”, several interesting patterns emerge from this set of data. The proportions for 2005 are largely equivalent to those for 2004 – the South African portion was 31%, for example. The most important difference is the appearance in 2005 of the Egyptian requests, representing the first non-Anglophone country with such a high request rate, and the first African country (after South Africa itself). No empirically based reasons can be put forward at this stage, but it is tempting to speculate on the influence of the growing contemporary interest in African identity (the “African Renaissance”) together with establishment of the new library at Alexandria. It is reasonable to assume that the majority of the Commercial (*.com) and Network (*.net) hits are from the USA and to a lesser extent, the UK, so the broad pattern of Map audience composition is 50% US and UK, 30% South African, and the remaining 20% other Anglophone cultures. The available statistics did not flag educational domains with *.ac extensions, so apart from the mostly US *.edu domains, the proportion of educational users, including those in South Africa, could not be ascertained.
Although several African, Far Eastern and East European countries appear on the request list, none of them score over 1% of hits.
By examining the website usage data generated over the first year of its publication, the KZN Map research team has been able to discern patterns of use that will be valuable in planning the future strategic direction of the site. User numbers have grown appreciably over the 13 month period for which detailed figures are available, and recorded usage shows an increase from a total of 854 hits over the nine months from August 2003 to April 2004, when the old pilot site was suspended, to a total of 3361 per week by August 2005. While the growing request rates show the popularity of the site, they say little about how users may be using the Map. Additional usage data reflecting the popularity of the individual author pages, and country of origin, do yield some information to help determine audience composition, but still leaves considerable gaps in our knowledge of our audience. At a project colloquium in 2004, the following questions were posed as for the Literary Tourism in KZN project as a whole:
“Who are the tourists who will be attracted to KwaZulu-Natal as literary tourists? What are their diverse interests likely to be? Where will you find them? And how will you draw the possibilities to their attention? How would you capture their imaginations so that they actually refer to the website and come and spend their money here? How will you know what aspects of literary landscape tourism will interest them?”(Butler-Adam, 2005: 13)
Partial answers to some of these important questions can be seen in the website usage data, particularly in relation to the success of the Map, as a component of the Literary Tourism project, but much more research is required to determine whether any of the virtual tourists become actual visitors to KwaZulu-Natal. A possible future line of research into the web usage data would be to survey of a sample of users, using an online submission form. The broader questions posed by Butler-Adam point to more conventional market research approaches.
Early signs of the marked popularity of the Alan Paton author entry has prompted plans to develop an existing Alan Paton literary tour, and an audio file of a previously unpublished interview with the author was added to the site. Another consequence of these popularity findings are plans to widen the representativeness of the authors featured on the site, by including more new writers whose writing will help enliven and enrich the Map, and whose presence on the Map may also expose their work to a wider readership.
T.S. Eliot’s question, quoted at the outset of the paper: “Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?” need not, therefore, imply a vacancy at the heart of our investigation. Far from being an empty exercise in number-crunching, the web usage analysis has and will continue to cast light on the progress of the Map project, and may even assist in facilitating broader user participation in the project. From a post-modern perspective the “Dust” Eliot refers to in his poem could just as easily be a cherished part of the “landscape of the imagination” so important to the literary tourist.
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